By Airman Magazine Staff, Airman Magazine
/ Published September 10, 2018
Children in West Berlin watch U.S. Air Force transport planes land at Templehof Airport during the Berlin Airlift in 1948. During the height of the operation, an aircraft landed every thirty seconds in West Berlin. The USAF delivered 1,783,573 tons and the RAF 541,937, on a total of 278,228 flights from June, 1948 to May, 1949. (U.S. Air Force photo)
Retired U.S. Air Force Colonel Gail. S. Halvorsen holds a candy bar parachute similar the ones he dropped during the Berlin Airlift in front of C-54 Skymaster like the one he flew during WWII at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Arizona. During the Berlin Airlift, 1948-1949, then Lt. Gail S. Halvorsen dropped candy attached to parachutes made from handkerchiefs to German youngsters watching the airlift operations from outside the fence of the Tempelhof Airport in West Berlin. (U.S. Air Force photo/Bennie J. Davis III)
Lt. Gail Halvorsen, �The Candy Bomber," greets children of isolated West Berlin sometime during 1948-49 after dropping candy bars from the air on tiny parachutes. (U.S. Air Force photo)
More than three years after World War II ended, Russian forces blockaded the Allied-controlled areas of Berlin on June 24, 1948, shutting off access to food, coal and medicine to two million German citizens.
Berlin became the first front line of The Cold War and the nine-month old U.S. Air Force was charged with keeping Berliners alive while keeping the Cold War from turning hot.
The Berlin Airlift began two days later, with U.S. Air Force C-47 Skytrains and C-54 Skymasters delivering milk, flour and medicine to West Berlin. Throughout the duration of the blockade, U.S. and British aircraft delivered more than 2.3 million tons of supplies. At the height of the Berlin Airlift, aircraft were landing every three minutes, supplying up to 13,000 tons of food, coal and medicine a day, according to the Air Force Historical Support Division.
Then-1st Lt. Gail Halvorsen, who retired from the Air Force as a colonel in 1974, was one of the American pilots flying around-the-clock missions from Rhein-Main Air Base in West Germany to Tempelhof Air Field in Berlin. He flew 126 missions delivering supplies and food from July 1948 to February 1949.
“We learned very clearly that the new enemy was Stalin. He was taking over where Hitler left off. We knew exactly what Stalin had in mind,” Halvorsen said.
However, some Airmen had mixed emotions about aiding the former enemy that had been shooting at American pilots just three years before. Halvorsen admitting that he had issues at first with the mission, but it quickly changed when he talked with a fellow crewmember.
“He told me that it is a hell of a lot better to feed them (rather) than kill them and that he was glad to be back. That is service before self. That is what causes your enemy to become your friend,” Halvorsen said.
On one of his first missions, the American pilot learned in a conversation with German youth through the perimeter fence at Templehof, that West Berliners may have needed food, but they were even more hungry for hope and freedom.
Between missions, Halvorsen was filming aircraft landings with his Revere movie camera when he encountered about 30 German children between the ages of 8 and 14, he said in his autobiography, “The Berlin Candy Bomber.”
He greeted them with practically all the German he knew, but surprisingly, one of the group spoke English. Halvorsen was soon answering questions about how many sacks of flour and loaves of bread the airplanes carried and what other types of cargo were being airlifted.
“I got five steps away from them, and then it hit me,” said Halvorsen, commonly known as the Berlin Candy Bomber. “I’d been dead-stopped for an hour, and not one kid had put out their hand. Not one.”
The contrast was so stark because during World War II, and dating all the way back to George Washington, if you were in an American uniform walking down the street, kids would chase you and ask for chocolate and gum.
“The reason they didn’t was they were so grateful to our fliers to be free. They wouldn’t be a beggar for more than freedom,” said Halvorsen. “Hitler’s past and Stalin’s future was their nightmare. American-style freedom was their dream. They knew what freedom was about. They said, ‘Someday we’ll have enough to eat, but if we lose our freedom, we’ll never get it back.’ These were kids, and they were teaching me about freedom. That’s what just blew me away… That was the trigger. I reached into my pocket, but all I had were two sticks of gum. Right then, the smallest decision I made changed the rest of my life.”
When he reached into his pocket for the two sticks of Wrigley’s Doublemint gum, Halvorsen debated the wisdom of giving it to them. Perhaps they’d fight over it. Yet, he broke each in half and passed four halves through the barbed wire, then braced for the rush of children to the fence.
The children who didn’t get any of the gum only asked for a piece of the wrapper so they could smell the aroma. Their reaction, along with the surprise the pilot felt when they didn’t beg for anything, led to his decision to do more for them.
The man the German children would later call “Onkel Wackelflugel” or Uncle Wiggly Wings, came up with an idea that would not only change the lives of those children, but would also help the West win the ideological war with the Soviets for Germany’s future.
Halvorsen told the kids he would drop something to them on his next landing at Templehof if they promised to share. He would signal them on approach that it was his plane by wiggling the wings, something he’d done for his parents after he received his pilot’s license in 1941.
Back at Rhein-Main Air Base, just 280 miles away, he combined his candy rations with those of his co-pilot and engineer, made parachutes out of handkerchiefs and string and tied them to chocolate and gum for the first “Operation Little Vittles” drop from his C-54 Skymaster July 18, 1948.
“The only way I could get back to deliver it was to drop it from the airplane, 100 feet over their heads, on the approach between the barbed wire fence and bombed-out buildings,” Halvorsen said. “A red light came on that said you can’t drop it without permission. But I rationalized it by saying that starving 2 million people isn’t according to Hoyle, either, so what’s a few candy bars?”
The amount of candy steadily increased, along with the number of waiting children, for three weeks until a Berlin newspaper published a photo of the now famous “Candy Bomber.”
Soon, stacks of letters began arriving at Templehof base operations addressed to “Der Schokoladen Flieger” (the Chocolate Flyer), or “Onkel Wackelflugel.”
One day, after he returned from Berlin, Halvorsen was summoned by Col. James R. Haun, the C-54 squadron commander. Haun had received a call from Brig. Gen. William H. Tunner, deputy commander of operations during the airlift, who wanted to know who was dropping parachutes over Berlin.
Halvorsen knew he was in trouble when Haun showed him the newspaper with the picture of little parachutes flying out of his C-54.
“You got me in a little trouble there, Halvorsen,” Haun told him.
“I’d had a long relationship with him, but he was put out because he was sandbagged,” Halvorsen said. “So when I talk to kids, especially high school kids, I say, ‘when you get a job, don’t sandbag your boss.’ He said to keep [dropping candy], but keep him informed. It just went crazy after that.”
Fellow pilots donated their candy rations. Eventually, they ran out of parachutes, so they made more from cloth and old shirt-sleeves until noncommissioned officers’ and officers’ wives at Rhein-Main AB began making them.
Later, the American Confectioners Association donated 18 tons of candy, mostly sent through a Chicopee, Massachusetts school where students attached it to parachutes before sending to Berlin through then-Westover Air Force Base.
By the end of the Berlin Airlift in September 1949, American pilots had dropped 250,000 parachutes and 23 tons of candy.
“Willie Williams took over after I left Berlin,” Halvorsen said. “And he ended up dropping even more candy than I did.”
Since the Berlin Airlift ended, Halvorsen has met countless Germans whose lives were changed because of “Operation Little Vittles.”
One of them, a 7-year-old girl named Mercedes, wrote in a letter in 1948 that she loved “Der Schokoladen Flieger,” but was concerned for her chickens, who thought the airlift planes were chicken hawks. Mercedes asked him to drop candy near the white chickens because she didn’t care if he scared them.
The two would finally meet face-to-face 24 years later when Halvorsen returned to Berlin as Templehof commander in the early 1970s.
Mercedes’ husband, Peter Wild, convinced the Templehof commander to come to his home for dinner. Mercedes showed him the letter he’d written her in 1948, along with the chickens she’d written about in her own letter.
It was a friendship immortalized in Margot Theis Raven’s children’s book, “Mercedes and the Chocolate Pilot.”
Halvorsen has returned to Berlin nearly 40 times since the airlift. In 1974, he received one of Germany’s highest medals, the Grosses Bundesverdienstkreuz, and carried the German team’s national placard into Rice-Eccles Stadium during the opening march for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.
Halvorsen participated in a re-enactment of “Operation Little Vittles” during the 40th and 50th anniversaries of the Berlin Airlift and also dropped candy from a C-130 Hercules during Operation Provide Promise in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Even at the age of 97, Halvorsen keeps a busy schedule as he and his wife, Lorraine, split their time between their homes in Arizona and Utah. Several times a year he would fly the C-54 “Spirit of Freedom,” with FAA certification to fly second-in-command.
He’s also visited many schools, both stateside and overseas, and visited Iraq to review Air Mobility Command transport operations and visit troops deployed in Southwest Asia.
Seventy years since the Berlin Airlift, the colonel remains universally beloved as the “Candy Bomber,” but enjoys one thing about his perpetual notoriety the most.
“The thing I enjoy the most about being the ‘Candy Bomber’ is seeing the children’s reaction even now to the idea of a chocolate bar coming out of the sky,” he said. “The most fun I have is doing air drops because even here in the states, there’s something magical about a parachute flying out of the sky with a candy bar on it.”
Halvorsen believes the praise he receives for bringing hope to a generation of Germans through his candy bombing deflects much of the credit to that first group of children at the barbed wire fence at Templehof.
Their gratitude and thankfulness for the pilots’ efforts to keep them free during the Berlin Airlift inspired him to reach into his pocket for those two sticks of gum.
That “smallest decision,” as Halvorsen calls it, led to 23 tons of candy dropped from the sky to the children of West Berlin and changed countless lives, not to mention the life of the Candy Bomber, himself.
Halvorsen’s dedication to helping those in need didn’t end after he retired with 31 years of service in the Air Force. In 1994, his request to assist in another humanitarian airlift was approved. He would fly with the Air Force again, this time delivering food to 70,000 refugees fleeing from the conflict in Bosnia.
“We have our freedom to choose, and when the freedom is taken away, air power is the only quick way to answer a crisis like that,” he recalled.
Lt. Gen. Jim Slife and the AFSOC we need
FYSA: Agility Prime
At Altitude Podcast: Brig. Gen. Jeffery D. Valenzia and ABMS
FYSA with SECAF Frank Kendall
The Debrief Podcast: Artificial Intelligence
Under Secretary Jones preparing for pacing challenge, prioritizing potential
Focused on strategic competition, Air Force Secretary Kendall confident “One Team, One Fight” will lead to success
FYSA: Game On!
Hypersonics: Adding Speed to the Quiver
Dr. Mark Lewis: Hypersonics and The Need For Speed
The Debrief Podcast: Women's Initiative Team
Women's Initiative Team : Taking Initiative, Breaking Barriers
Valenzia: ABMS Will Deliver the "Decision Advantage"
Disruptive Technology: The Quantum Frontier
Airframe: The F-35A Lightning II
Virtual Aggression - Real World Response
21st Century Recruiting Maj. Gen. Thomas
Preparing For A Storm
Airframe: The F-117 Nighthawk
Negative for COVID
A Natural Partnership
21st Century Deterrence
A Case for Space
PODCAST: Maj. Gen. Thomas, AFRS
The New Normal
B-52: Global Strike Workhorse
Learning Some Cold Truths
PODCAST: Maj. Gen. Higby
CMSAF Wright Looks Back
An Airman: First, Last, Always
Arctic Strategy Unveiled
PODCAST: Brig. Gen. Melancon
The Future Is Now
The A.I. Advantage
Everybody Looks Up
Red, White and Blast-Off
Answering the Call
Last of the Raiders
The Disease Detectives
Great Power Competition
Managing the Future Talent
Leader of the Pack
Research, Acquire, Sustain, Repeat
Foundation for Arctic Security
25th SecAF Barbara Barrett - The First Interview
Engaging the Arctic
Based In Trust
Built From Scratch
Air Base 201
PODCAST: ASAF Henderson
Closing the Gap
Squadrons 'Beating Heart' of the Air Force
Guarding the Nation's Skies
Faces on the Hill
Building A Power Base
Gateway To Readiness
At Close Range
Looking Down Range
The New Deterrent
PODCAST: Civil Air Patrol
Airframe: The CV-22 Osprey
Stewards of the Land
The Wright Stuff
SecAF Heather Wilson
PODCAST: Dr. Will Roper
Character Takes Flight
Talent and Total Force
Airframe: The B-17 Flying Fortress
Airframe: The Stearman Kaydet
Time is of the Essence
Airframe: The T-6A Texan II
Serving, Saving, Shaping
Airframe: The B-2 Spirit
21st Century Air National Guard
Out of the Box
Airframe: The HH-60G Pave Hawk
Changing the Story
The Agile 99th
Big Solutions From Small Places
The Lever of Culture
The Flying First
Sweet Taste of Freedom
Airframe: The T-38 Talon
Airframe: The KC-135 Stratotanker
Thawing the Middle
Airman To Be Awarded Medal Of Honor
In Perpetual Mission
Airframe: The C-5 Galaxy
Stop The Bleed, Save A Life
Speed and Fusion
Airframe: The EC-130H Compass Call
Staying On Track
Airframe: The B-1B Lancer
Icon of Airmanship
U.S. Air Force Chief Scientist
Advancing At The Speed Of Relevance
Airframe: The B-52H Stratofortress
No Detail Too Small
Airframe: The C-17 Globemaster III
Care in the Air
Airframe: The F-16 Fighting Falcon
The State of U.S. Strategic Command
Meet Under Secretary of the Air Force Matthew Donovan
Airframe: The E-3 Sentry (AWACS)
Airframe: The AC-130 Gunship
Where the Sun Never Sets
Firing Up the Force
Formation of Friendship
Airframe: The A-10 Thunderbolt II
Airframe: The F-22 Raptor
A View from the Pacific
Creating Synthetic Teammates
Optimizing the Data Loop
Airframe: The F-15 Eagle
Global Already There
Airframe: The U-2 Dragon Lady
An Innovative Collaborative
Airframe: The SR-71 Blackbird
Battlefield Game Changer
Airframe: The F-35A Lightning II
No English, No Problem
The First Interview
ACC Flight Plan
The Night Watchmen
Guarding the Skies
Faces of Deterrence
The State of Air Force Medicine
Partners In Sight
Cadet Falconers Take Flight
F-4 Flies for Final Time
Farewell to the Chief
A Beneficial Development
Recipe For Success
A Mighty Display of Democracy
The Aircraft Canaries
Eyewitness To Infamy
Point Of Recovery
Avoiding the Last Step
Acquire, Assess, Exploit
Meals Readily Explained
Down the Hatch
Whispers of Another War
Bonjour, Mon Nom Est...
Embrace the Paste
Original Air Force One
Farewell to the Force
The Man-Machine Interface
The Swat Team
From Cradle To Space
Comfort in the Cold
House Of Pain
A Fighting Raven
Formation of a Legacy
Struck By The Thunderbolt
The Perfect Storm
A Solemn Mission
Aspiring To New Heights
Beyond the Blast Doors
Blood, Sweat, Perfection
An Original Rosie
Missing In America
"They Call Me Legend"
Forever An Airman
Forward From Vietnam
Digging For Answers
Behind the Hat
Santa By C-130
Civil War Moments
From Beyond the Flames
Hang In There
One Step Forward
The Human Weapon
The Perfect Edge
The Hands Of Time
Standing in the Door
From the Ground Up
A Spartan Death
Ties That Bind
Trauma To Triumph
'Katrina Girl' Found
A Look Back
C-17 Health Care
Students of Fire
Bird's Eye View
Frozen Tundra Warriors
Taking a Load Off
Full Steam Ahead
Maintaining Red Flag
Crossing Country Line
Taking It to the Woods
Heavens to Betsy